Haryana is one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia, and its agricultural and manufacturing industries have experienced sustained growth since the 1970s. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India. It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Haryana has a total of 154 cities and towns and 6,841 villages.
Haryana has four main geographical features:
- The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
- The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
- Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
- The Aravali Range in the south
Haryana is extremely hot in summer and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January. Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.
On 28 December 2015, the Panchkula district of Haryana was awarded for being the top-performing district in the state under the Digital India campaign. Haryana has become the first state to implement Aadhaar-enabled birth registration in all the districts. Haryana Police force is the law enforcement agency of Haryana. It has a cybercrime investigation cell, in Gurgaon's Sector 51. The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.
Faridabad is one of the biggest industrial city of Haryana as well as North India.
Rohtak has the largest wholesale cloth market of Asia, known as shori market. Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) has developed an Industrial Model Township (IMT).
Bahadurgarh is an important developing industrial town with glass, steel, tiles manufacturing and biscuits production.
Panipat has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation , a urea manufacturing plant operated by National Fertilizers Limited and a National Thermal Power Corporation power plant.
Hissar is another developing city and the hometown of Navin Jindal and Subhash Chandra of Zee TV fame. Savitri Jindal, Navin Jindal's mother, has been listed by Forbes as the third richest woman in world.
Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.
Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. Haryana has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 21 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.
Haryana Power Generation Corporation Ltd (HPGCL) is setting up a solar power plant at the site of a defunct thermal power plant in Faridabad. The power generator plans to set up the plant over 151.78 acres near Bata Chowk in the district that generated coal-based energy in the past.
Haryana has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of sports. Mahavir Singh Phogat, Sushil Kumar, Yogeshwar Dutt, Sakshi Malik, Vinesh Phogat, Geeta Phogat and Babita Kumari in wrestling field, Kavita Chahal, Vijender Singh, Jitender Kumar, Akhil Kumar and Vikas Krishan Yadav in boxing filed, Kapil Dev, Chetan Sharma, Ajay Jadeja, Amit Mishra and Mohit Sharma and Virender Sehwag in Cricket. In the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India won came from Haryana. During the 33rd National Games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood first in the nation with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals.